China accounts for around one-eighth of the world's grassland and almost all of its grasslands are being degraded. The authors analyse how China is grappling with the complex ecological and livelihood problems these pastoral areas present. The sustainable development of these extremely poor, culturally sensitive, strategically important and extremely diverse western pastoral areas poses one of the foremost challenges confronting the Chinese government. This much-needed study provides a unique examination of the intricate web of policies and institutions that now impact on grassland degradation and sustainable development in China's pastoral region.Understanding this complex matrix and its impact on the management of people, livestock, grasslands, markets and industry structures is crucial in charting a way forward. The authors argue that the aim should be to manage these inter-locking complex systems in a manner that takes advantage of the opportunities that technology present to achieve sustainable use of the grasslands. Whilst their analysis is especially relevant to how China pursues the high priority national goal of 'Developing the West', it also reveals much about how China addresses other serious environmental problems that involve disadvantaged groups.With its multi-disciplinary approach, the book will be invaluable and fascinating reading for academics and researchers of Chinese studies, development studies, ecosystem sustainability and natural resource management. Based on extensive first-hand fieldwork in the grasslands over two decades, the practical detail in this book will also be warmly welcomed by consultants and officials in NGOs and other international agencies charged with planning and executing pastoral development projects in China, Central Asia and Mongolia.
Technical innovation in industry is regarded by many people as the best way of making industry more profitable. A great deal of energy and time is being expended by businessmen and by governments discussing how best to bring about technical innovation. This book, which was first published in 1987, argues that all concerned with technical innovation should bear in mind the importance of 'networks'. 'Networks' are defined as the web of contacts which exist between suppliers, customers, and producers in industry. Drawing on extensive original research, the book discusses the need for co-ordinating technical research and development with suppliers and customers and examines in detail how this should best be done. This book is ideal for students of business and economics.
This volume addresses the role of communicative interaction in driving various dimensions of second language development from the perspective of Vygotskian sociocultural psychology. Emphasizing the dialectical relationship between the external-social world and individual mental functioning, the chapters delve into a wide range of topics illustrating how the social and the individual are united in interaction. Themes include psychological and human mediation, joint action, negotiation for meaning, the role of first language use, embodied and nonverbal behaviors, and interactional competencies. Theoretical discussions and key concepts are reinforced and illustrated with detailed qualitative analyses of interaction in a variety of second language contexts. Each chapter also includes pedagogical recommendations. Supplemental materials (e.g., videos, transcripts, discussion questions) have been made available as "data sessions" on the book's companion website so that readers can engage with the themes presented in the book through sample analytic exercises.
In clear, easy-to-grasp language, the author covers many of the topics that you will need to know in order to win your dream job and be the first in line for a promotion.
This volume examines the tax systems of some twenty countries to determine whether their tax laws are used to support growth and development across borders in lower-income and poor countries. Given the critical economic development needs of poorer countries and the importance of stability in these regions to the security of populations throughout the world, the use of a country's tax laws to support investment in the developing world gains crucial significance. This book explores whether international standards promoting the fundamental values of the major tax systems of the world accommodate incentives for these nations. In addition, it analyzes the way in which adoption of principles by higher income nations to protect their own revenue bases has a spill-over effect, impairing the ability of developing countries to sustain their economies. Following an introduction that synthesizes worldwide trends, the volume contains separate chapters for a variety of countries detailing the underlying goals and values of each system and the way in which the decision to employ (or not employ) incentives accommodates those ends. The chapters include reports for: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Hong Kong, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Maldives, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, South Africa, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, and Venezuela.
The volume memorializes the work of the GeneralÂ Reporter and National Reporters at the Taxation and Development session of the 19th Congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law held in July, 2014, in Vienna, Austria.
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