From the Internet's infrastructure to operating systems like GNU/Linux, the open source movement comprises some of the greatest accomplishments in computing over the past quarter century. Its story embraces technological advances, unprecedented global collaboration, and remarkable tools for facilitating distributed development. The evolution of the Internet enabled an enormous expansion of open development, allowing developers to exchange information and ideas without regard to constraints of space, time, or national boundary. The movement has had widespread impact on education and government, as well as historic, cultural, and commercial repercussions. Part I discusses key open source applications, platforms, and technologies used in open development. Part II explores social issues ranging from demographics and psychology to legal and economic matters. Part III discusses the Free Software Foundation, open source in the public sector (government and education), and future prospects.
In recent years, the way open source software is developed has taken hold as a valid alternative to commercial proprietary methods, as have the products themselves, e.g., the Linux operating system, Apache web-server software, and Mozilla Firefox browser. But what is open source software? How is the open source community organized? What makes this new model successful? What effects has it had and might it have on the future of the IT industry, companies and government policies? These and many other questions are answered in this book.The first chapter gives a brief history of the open source community and the second chapter takes a close look at the relationship between intellectual property rights and software, both open source and proprietary. The next three chapters consider the who, the open source community, the how, software development both within and outside the community, and the what, open source projects and product quality. Chapters 6 and 7 focus on the different users of open source software: companies and governments respectively. These are followed by two chapters that interpret the phenomenon, first from an organizational point of view in Chapter 8 and then using the theory of complex adaptive systems in Chapter 9. The last chapter explores the current and potential applications of the concept underlying open source software in other fields.
Since the mid-1980s, most developing countries launched decentralization reforms. At least sixty claim to be devolving some natural resource management functions. These reforms are lauded for their potential to increase efficiency, equity, democracy and resource sustainability in the local arena. But what is taking place in the name of decentralization? Is the discourse on decentralization being codified in law? Are the laws being translated into practice? What are the effects of the reforms that are taking place? Natural resource decentralizations provide powerful insights into these questions-for natural resource decentralizations and for decentralizations writ large.
The recital of The Book of Opening the Mouth and the Liturgy of Funerary Offerings were in use among the Predynastic Egyptians of the later part of the Neolithic Period, before the art of writing had evolved, and continued to exercise a considerable influence on Egyptian religious literature up until the time of Roman Empire. The ceremonies were believed to enable the spiritual elements of the deceased to continue their existence. The object of the formulae was the reconstitution of the body and the restoration to it of the heart-soul ('Ba').
This is the second volume of The Book of Opening the Mouth, first published in 1909, which is edited from three copies written in the nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-sixth Dynasties respectively. It is believed they describe faithfully the forms of the rites which originated among the primitive indigenous inhabitants of the Nile Valley.
In clear, easy-to-grasp language, the author covers many of the topics that you will need to know in order to win your dream job and be the first in line for a promotion.
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